The Pinus Quadrifolia
is commonly known as Four-needled Pinyon
, Nut Pine
, as well as Parry Pinyon< Go Back
Parry pinyon is the most widespread coniferous tree in northern Baja
]. It is mainly a Mexican species, growing in the Sierra
de Juarez and Sierra San Pedro Martir. In the United States, Parry
pinyon occurs in California. Several stands of Parry pinyon grow in
southeastern San Diego County, and in the southwest corner of Imperial
County, close to the Mexican border. A small population of Parry pinyon
grows in south-central Riverside County, 30 miles (50 km) from the main
]. Ranges of singleleaf pinyon and Parry pinyon overlap
in southwestern California and northern Baja California [7
The currently accepted scientific name of Parry pinyon is Pinus
quadrifolia Parl. [7
]. It is a member of the subgenus Haploxylon,
subsection Cembroides [2
]. Lanner [15
] reduced Parry pinyon to
hybrid status, (P. x quadrifolia Parl.), based upon studies of needle
number, resin canal number, twig hairiness, and stomate position. He
concluded that Parry pinyon is the result of hybridization between
singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and a heretofore unrecognized
5-needle pinyon now named Sierra Juarez pinyon (Pinus juarezensis).
There are divergent opinions among botanists and taxonomists regarding
these conclusions. Perry [26
] recognizes Parry pinyon as a separate
species pending further studies. This paper will follow Perry's
taxonomy. Parry pinyon hybridizes with P. monophylla and P.
juarzensis. Lanner [15
] also suggests that Parry pinyon crosses with P.
edulis and P. cembroides. There are no recognized varieties,
subspecies, or forms of Parry pinyon.
Parry pinyon is a dominant member of the pinyon-juniper woodland of
southern California and northern Baja California. California juniper
(Juniperus californica) commonly codominates with Parry pinyon . In
the mountains of northern Baja California, Parry pinyon is associated
with pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus spp.) woodlands and typical California
chaparral [32,33]. On the western flank of the interior Sierra de
Juarez, Parry pinyon forms scattered groves within relatively dense
chaparral of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) and red shank (A.
sparsifolium). Along the crest and eastern rim of the Sierra de Juarez
it forms continuous forests with desert chaparral species such as
peninsular manzanita (Arctostaphylos peninsularis) .
A classifications listing Parry pinyon as a dominant species is:
Woodland classification: the pinyon-juniper formation .
Common plant associates not previously mentioned include Coulter pine
(Pinus coulteri), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and interior live oak (Q.
< Go Back
Much of the information presented here is attributed to:
Esser, Lora L. 1993. Pinus quadrifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available at USDA Forest Service.