The Tsuga Canadensis
is commonly known as Canada Hemlock
, Eastern Hemlock
, as well as Hemlock Spruce< Go Back
In the United States, eastern hemlock occurs throughout New England, the
mid-Atlantic states, and the Lake States, and extends south in the
Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama and west from the
mountains into Indiana, western Ohio, and western Kentucky. At its
northern limit, eastern hemlock ranges along the southern border of
Canada from southern Ontario to Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia [20
The currently accepted scientific name for eastern hemlock is Tsuga
canadensis (L.) Carr. [35
]. Fernald [15
] recognizes a dwarf form, T.
canadensis forma parvula Vict. and Rousseau, that grows in mats up to 3
feet (1 m) high in Quebec and New England.
Eastern hemlock occurs as a dominant or codominant in coniferous and
mixed-hardwood forests. It is often the only conifer present in mixed
mesophytic forests of the eastern United States .
Publications listing eastern hemlock as codominant or dominant are as
The natural forests of Maryland: an explanation of the vegetation map
of Maryland 
A multivariate analysis of forest communities in the western Great Smoky
Mountains National Park 
The vegetation of Wisconsin 
The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley 
Field guide: forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin 
A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America 
The natural communities of South Carolina 
Forest associations in the Harvard Forest 
Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains 
< Go Back
Much of the information presented here is attributed to:
Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Tsuga canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available at USDA Forest Service.